Archives


IVA Kerala, 01 - Jan - 1970

Anoestrus among Dogs of Kerala and its Therapeutic Management

The livestock census figures over the years reveal that the population of domestic dogs is on an increase in Kerala. The changes in the socio-cultural scenario and the popularization of the nuclear family concept might have contributed to this. Even though dogs are reared primarily as companion, pet and guard, currently many have identified the potential of dog breeding units as a remunerative vocation. Since timely reproduction has got paramount importance in optimizing the return from dog breeding units, owners of elite bitches with long inter-oestrus interval often approach veterinarians with the request to shorten the period of anoestrus, in order to increase the number of litters born per year.
Domestic bitches are non-seasonally monoestrus and as a result of this unique reproductive physiology, they exhibit cyclicity only once or twice in a year. The length of oestrous cycle in the bitch is considerably longer than that in most other domestic species and unique in that there is an obligatory anoestrus following the termination of the luteal phase. The anoestrus could be primary (the bitch that never had an ovarian cycle) or secondary (the bitch that had one or more ovarian cycles but subsequently failed to cycle). Perusal of literature revealed the use of a variety of exogenous hormones and their combinations viz., GnRH, FSH/LH, eCG/hCG and oestrogens for induction of oestrus in bitches with varying results. Administration protocols of most of these drugs involved daily to weekly injections necessitating a number of visits to the veterinary facility. Here comes the importance of newer drugs which can be administered orally by the pet owner himself under veterinary supervision. Under these circumstances, a study was undertaken to assess the prevalence, nature and magnitude of anoestrus among domestic bitches of Kerala and efficacy of prolactin antagonists (bromocriptine and cabergoline) and thyroxine in inducing fertile oestrus in anoestrous bitches.

Materials and Methods

The prevalence, nature and magnitude of anoestrus among 1203 female dogs were evaluated on scrutiny of their breeding details. From among the anoestrus bitches identified, 40 animals belonging to different breeds were selected at random and their body condition score (Laflamme, 1997) and haematological, hormonal, mineral and cholesterol profile were estimated. Oestrus induction trials were carried out by administering antiprolactin drugs viz. bromocriptine (@50µg/kg body weight) and cabergoline (@5µg/kg body weight) and thyroxine at two dose levels (@10 and 5µg/kg body weight), once daily orally for 20 consecutive days and the data obtained were compiled and analysed.

Results and Discussion

Prevalence, nature and magnitude of anoestrus
Among the 1203 bitches surveyed, 134 (11.14%) were identified as in the stage of anoestrus. Analysis of breed-wise prevalence revealed that anoestrus was high in breeds such as Dachshund (18.18%), Labrador retriever (16.74%), Great Dane (16.67%), Dalmatian (15.38%) and Doberman pinscher (14.00%). It is worth to notice that anoestrus was lowest (2.44%) among local non-descript bitches. The higher rate of prevalence of anoestrus noticed among exotic breeds might probably be due to their low adaptability, poor disease resistance, nutritional deficiencies/excesses and/or other stress related conditions.
Out of the 134 anoestrous bitches screened, 65.67 per cent was in primary and 34.33 per cent in secondary anoestrus revealing the fact that anoestrus was more in nulliparous than in parous bitches. The average age of bitches with primary and secondary anoestrus was found to be 22.68 and 34.34 months respectively. From this, it could be inferred that the age at puberty in bitches is much higher than the expected, delaying returns from breeding. Secondary anoestrus was found to be longest in Dachshund (19m) and shortest in Doberman pinscher (6.23m) with an overall average duration of 11.71 months. Prolonged inter-oestrus interval noticed among parous bitches in the present study would also badly affect the viability of dog breeding units by delaying returns.

Body condition score

Perusal of data on body condition revealed that 42 per cent of the anoestrous bitches were with the ideal body condition score of five, 46 per cent with body score more than five (obese) and 12 per cent with body score less than five (lean). The increased frequency of feeding of dogs, that too with highly nutritious food, sedentary life style of the owner and resultant lack of exercise might have contributed to the development of obesity in a good proportion of bitches. Johnson et al. (1997) opined that the classic signs of hypothyroidism in dogs included obesity and reproductive abnormalities. According to German (2006) obese dogs are predisposed to a number of disease conditions including reproductive disorders. However, anoestrus observed in a very few proportion of the bitches with lean body condition might be due to malnutrition.
Haematological profile
Analysis of haematological profile of anoestrous bitches revealed normochromic normocytic anaemia, which could possibly be associated with mild degree of hypothyroidism. Benjamin (1985) reported borderline normochromic normocytic anaemia as a clinical feature of hypothyroidism in intact female dogs. Leucogram of anoestrous bitches revealed slight leucocytosis also.
Hormonal profile
In the present study, a mean serum progesterone level of 0.57 ± 0.03 ng/ml was obtained in anoestrous bitches. The mean serum prolactin level in anoestrous bitches obtained in the present study (0.75 ± 0.05 ng/ml) did not reveal the existence of hyperprolactinaemia. The mean serum thyroxine level noticed in anoestrous bitches (1.80 ± 0.06 µg/dl) was more towards the lower side of the range quoted by Feldman and Nelson (1996), suggesting the possibility of a relationship between low serum thyroxine level and anoestrus.
Mineral profile
The mean serum calcium and phosphorus levels in anoestrous bitches were found to be 8.94 ± 0.24 and 3.48 ± 0.12 mg per cent respectively. These low values revealed the existence of mild hypocalcaemia and hypophosphataemia suggesting the relationship of deficiency of these minerals with anoestrus condition. However, the serum iron, copper, cobalt, zinc and manganese levels were found to be within the normal range.
Cholesterol profile
The mean cholesterol level in anoestrous bitches was found to be within the normal range, but more towards the upper limit suggesting the possibility of association between anoestrus and mild hypercholesterolemia.

Proestrus and oestrus response

Out of 10 animals treated in each group, five (50%) in bromocriptine treated group (Group I), nine (90%) in cabergoline treated group (Group II), eight (80%) in thyroxine (@10 μg/kg. body weight) treated group (Group III) and seven (70%) in thyroxine (@ 5 μg/kg. body weight) treated group (Group IV) evinced proestrual bleeding. The proestrus response was highest in cabergoline treated animals (Group II) and was lowest in bromocriptine treated animals (Group I). The present investigation revealed that cabergoline @ 5 μg/kg. body weight and thyroxine @ 10 μg/kg. body weight could be successfully used for induction of oestrus in bitches.
The mean treatment onset to proestrus in Groups I, II, III and IV was 28 ± 3.39, 13.44 ± 3.12, 24.50 ± 3.18 and 33 ± 2.21 days respectively. The treatment onset to proestrus in animals treated with cabergoline (Group II) was found to be significantly lower than that in other groups. The findings in the present study revealed that the cabergoline treated animals evinced proestrus earlier than the previous reports.     
The average duration of proestrus in the treatment groups was 9.80 ± 0.86, 10.11 ± 0.68, 11.25 ± 0.88 and 10.71 ± 0.68 days respectively and the average duration of oestrus was 7.60 ± 0.24, 8 ± 0.29, 8.5 ± 0.63 and 7.85 ± 0.46 days respectively. From this it could be inferred that successful induction of oestrus in bitches could be achieved by the administration of cabergoline @ 5 μg/kg. body weight orally.
Side effects observed during therapy
In the present study, 50 per cent of the animals treated with bromocriptine and 10 per cent of the animals treated with cabergoline exhibited nausea and vomiting as side effects. On the other hand, none of the animals treated with thyroxine exhibited side effects.

Conception rate

The conception rate in relation to the number of animals responded to oestrus induction treatment in the treatment groups were 80.00, 77.78, 62.50 and 57.14 per cent respectively. However, the respective overall conception rate in relation to the number of animals subjected to oestrus induction trials in the treatment groups were 40, 70, 50 and 40 per cent only. In the present study, conception rate based on the number of animals responded to the treatment was found to be highest in bromocriptine treated animals and lowest in thyroxine (@ 5 µg/kg. body weight) treated animals. However, the overall conception rate based on the number of animals subjected to oestrus induction trials was found to be highest in the cabergoline treated animals and lowest in bromocriptine and thyroxine (@ 5 µg/kg. body weight) treated animals. Since the cabergoline treated animals recorded a conception rate of 77.78 per cent based on the number of animals responded to the treatment and 70 per cent based on the number of animals subjected to oestrus induction trials, it could be concluded that cabergoline @ 5 µg/kg. body weight orally is the treatment of choice for induction of oestrus in bitches.

Gestation length, litter size and sex ratio

In the present study, the average gestation length in the treatment groups varied from 60.50 ± 1.55 to 64.00 ± 0.82 days and the average litter size varied from 5.14 ± 0.34 to 6.40 ± 0.40. Statistically significant difference could not be detected in gestation length, litter size and sex ratio between the treatment groups.

Summary
The prevalence of anoestrus among female dogs of Kerala was 11.14 per cent and that the anti-prolactin drug, cabergoline @ 5 µg/kg. body weight orally for 14 consecutive days was found to be the treatment of choice for induction of oestrus in bitches.

References

  • Benjamin, M.M. 1985. Outline of Veterinary Clinical Pathology. Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana, 351p
  • Feldman, E.C. and Nelson, R.W. 1996. Ovarian cycle and vaginal cytology. In: Canine and Feline Endocrinology and Reproduction. Second edition. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, pp. 526-545, 633-638
  • German, A.J. 2006. The growing problem of obesity in dogs and cats. J. Nutr.136: 1940-1946
  • Johnson, C.A., Nachreiner,  R.F., Mullaney, T.P. and Olivier, N.B. 1997.  Reproductive manifestations of hypothyroidism. Canine Pract. 22: 29-30
  • Laflamme, D. 1997.  Development and validation of a body score system for dogs.  Canine Pract. 22: 10-15

MORE IN NEWS



Anoestrus among Dogs of Kerala and its Therapeutic Management

Readmore

Livelihood Support in Karumalloor Panchayath

Readmore

ABC VETERINARIANS

Readmore

Installation of office bearers and inauguration of activities 2019 - Ernakulam

Readmore

Installation and inauguration of activities-2019, Trivandrum district

Readmore

Inauguration of Activities - 2019, Kottayam

Readmore

Inauguration of Activities - 2019, Idukki

Readmore

Installation ceremony of the office bearers of IVA Idukki was held on 07.01.2017

Readmore

Activities of IVA Ernakulam.unit for January 2017

Readmore

IVA TRISSUR INSTALLATION on 20th January 2017

Readmore

onam celebrations

Readmore

Send off to vets and a Lecture on Income Tax

Readmore

EcVet veterinary Webinar Series -Class on Diabetes Mellitus in Small Animals on 06/04/2020

Readmore

Ecvet Webinar Series -Fluid Therapy in Small Animals lead by Dr Vinodkumar P R

Readmore

Taluk level GB's held in June

Readmore

CVE by Dr. Vinodkumar P R

Readmore

Activities of Pathanamthitta District for the month of August 2015

Readmore

Honouring of retired Veterinarians of Kerala; Distribution of awards to officers working in various cadres of AHD

Readmore

Annual General Body of IVA, Kerala

Readmore

VETRICON 2015 - Valedictory Function

Readmore

First State Committee meeting at Trivandrum

Readmore

Dr Gopakumar Commemoration lecture on elephants on 11-1-2016

Readmore

State Level Workshop on ABC AR by IVA, Kerala

Readmore

Guidelines to Authors -JIVAONLINE

Readmore

Articles are invited for the souvenir to be published as part of World Veterinary Day 2016

Readmore

Seminar Social responsibility in Animal Birth control

Readmore

State Executive Committee Meeting of IVA, Kerala to be held on 09/04/2014 at Trissur

Readmore

National Seminar on Green Economics and Desi Cow

Readmore

26th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP 2017)

Readmore

World Veterinary Day Commemoration 2016

Readmore

Release of ABC AR model project prepared by IVA, Kerala to be released by Hon. Chief Secretary of Kerala

Readmore

The World Veterinary Association Continuing Education Seminar

Readmore

National seminar on "Newer approaches in cow comfort system for better productivity"

Readmore

First State Committee meeting of IVA, Kerala 2017 on 18th January 2017

Readmore

International conference on Canine and Feline Cardiology on 17th-19th February 2017

Readmore

WORLD SPAY DAY 2017 on 28th Feb 2017 at ABC Centre,Kasargode

Readmore

Lady Vets Day March 8, 2017

Readmore

9th Kerala Veterinary Science Congress-2017- on 11th and 12th November 2017

Readmore

World Zoonosis day 2017 commemoration at at Kannur on 6th JULY 2017

Readmore

Best Veterinarian Award 2017 -Nominations invited

Readmore

Inviting article for JIVA vol 15 Issue 3-Details

Readmore

2nd WVA ANIMAL WELFARE AWARDS 2018 - CALL FOR NOMINATIONS

Readmore

Kerala VeterinaryScience Congress-2018 on 10th and 11th of November 2018

Readmore

കുളമ്പു രോഗത്തിന് ഹോമിയോ ചികിത്സ നിയമ വിő

Readmore

Veterinarians Annual Convention 2018-Logo released

Readmore

World Rabies Day Commemmoration

Readmore

Kerala VeterinaryScience Congress-2018 on 10th and 11th of November 2018

Readmore

Second State Committee Meeting of IVA Kerala - at Veterinarians Square Thrissur on 9 th December 2018

Readmore

Annual General Body Meeting of Indian Veterinary Association Kerala for the year 2018 ON 23rd December 2018

Readmore

Installation Ceremony of New Office Bearers

Readmore

Leadership Camp of State Committee Members

Readmore

World Veterinary Day - 2019

Readmore

World Milk Day

Readmore

World Zoonoses Day - 2019

Readmore

Kerala Veterinary Science Congress - 2019

Readmore

Refresher Training for Young Vets at Madupatty

Readmore

Veterinarians' Annual Convention - 2019

Readmore

IVA Kerala Awards - 2019

Readmore

State Committee Meeting

Readmore

State Leadership Camp

Readmore

World Spay Day Celebrations 2020

Readmore

Activities during June 2015

Readmore

Activities during May 2015

Readmore

IVA activities June 2015 Ernakulam ( Dist )

Readmore

IVA activities conducted in June in Trissur

Readmore

VETRICON 2015

Readmore

VETRICON-2015 Programme schedule

Readmore

© IVA kerala 2022 All Rights Reserved. Powered by Iva